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Both leaders must have had reason to avoid further campaigning, as Severus returned to Europe in the following year (233) and Ardashir did not renew his attacks for several years, probably focusing his energies in the east. In contrast, Ardashir I established a strong central government by which to rule his dominions. MasÊ¿Å«dÄ« (MorÅ«Ç° II p. 162) gives a traditional version of ArdaÅ¡Ä«r’s words concerning the church-state relationship: “Know that the religion and the monarchy are two brothers neither of which can exist without the other. This theory suggests that Sasan married the daughter of Papak after the latter discovers that Sasan is of royal Achaemenid descent. As patron of the church, Ardashir appears in … Founder and first king of the Iranian Sassanid dynasty. Crowned in 226 as the "Šāhān šāh Ērān" "king of kings [of] Iran"cite encyclopedia|last=MacKenzie|first=David Niel|title=Ērān, Ērānšahr|year=1998|volume=8|encyclopedia=Encyclopedia Iranica|publisher=Mazda|location=Costa Mesa|url=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v8f5/v8f545.html] (his consort Adhur-Anahid took the title "Queen of Queens"), Ardashir finally brought the 480 year-old Parthian Empire to an end and began four centuries of Sassanid rule.Over the next few years, Ardashir I further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Gorgan, Khorasan, Margiana (in modern Turkmenistan), Balkh, and Chorasmia. The empire was divided into cantons, the dimensions of which were based on military considerations. However, one can discern that the Persians must have suffered considerable losses as well, as no attempt was made to pursue the fleeing Romans. Ardashir served the administrator of Darabgird (a fortress in Fars), who was a vassal of the Parthian king Artabanus V (209–224). Ardashir ("Arđaxšēr" from Middle Persian and Parthian "Artaxšaθra", Pahlavi "rthštr", "Who has the Divine Order as his Kingdom") is also known as Ardashīr-i Pāpagān "Ardashir, son of Pāpağ", and other variants of his name include Latinized "Artaxares" and "Artaxerxes". According to the hagiographic "Book of the Deeds of Ardashir son of Babak", Ardashir I then went on to capture the western vassal states of the now-defunct Arsacids. This expansion brought the attention of the Arsacid Great King Ardavan (Artabanus) IV (216–224), Ardashir's overlord and ruler of the Parthian Empire, who marched against him in 224. Ardashir (Arđaxšēr from Middle Persian and Parthian ArtaxÅ¡aθra, Pahlavi ʼrthÅ¡tr, "Who has the Divine Order as his Kingdom") is also known as ArdeshÄ«r-i Pāpagān "Ardashir, son of Pāpağ", and other variants of his name include Latinized Artaxares and Artaxerxes. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Furthermore, the Kings of Kushan, Turan, and Mekran recognized Ardashir as their overlord. Local governors who descended from the ruling family bore the title of "shāh". * Oranskij, I. M. 1977: "Les Langues Iraniennes". In contrast, Ardashir I established a strong central government by which to rule his dominions. Given Armenia's traditional position as an ally of the Romans, Ardashir I may have seen his primary opponent not in the Armenian and Caucasian troops he had faced, but in Rome and her legions.In 230 Ardashir I led his army into the Roman province of Mesopotamia, unsuccessfully besieging the fortress town of Nisibis. Ardashir strengthened Persia by going to war against the Roman Emperor Alexander Severus. * [http://www.avesta.org/pahlavi/karname.htm Book of the Deeds of Ardashir son of Babak], ARDASHIR — (Artaxata), ancient capital of Armenia, situated on an island in the Aras (Araxes) River. According to the hagiographic "Book of the Deeds of Ardashir son of Babak", Ardashir I then went on to capture the western vassal states of the now-defunct Arsacids.Crowned in 226 as the "Šāhān šāh Ērān" "king of kings [of] Iran"cite encyclopedia|last=MacKenzie|first=David Niel|title=Ērān, Ērānšahr|year=1998|volume=8|encyclopedia=Encyclopedia Iranica|publisher=Mazda|location=Costa Mesa|url=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v8f5/v8f545.html] (his consort Adhur-Anahid took the title "Queen of Queens"), Ardashir finally brought the 480 year-old Parthian Empire to an end and began four centuries of Sassanid rule.Over the next few years, Ardashir I further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Gorgan, Khorasan, Margiana (in modern Turkmenistan), Balkh, and Chorasmia. Ardashir was born in the late 2nd century in what is present-day Fars, [ [http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/ardashir%20i%20of%20persia%20-%20early%20years/id/4803164 Ardashir I of Persia: Encyclopedia II - Ardashir I of Persia - Early years ] ] [ [http://persianempire.info/sassanid.htm The Sassanid Empire PersianEmpire.info History of the Persian Empire ] ] then a vassal kingdom of the Parthian Arsacids. Despite these impressive structures, he established his government at the old Arsacid capital of Ctesiphon on the Tigris River. Ardashir I was an energetic king, responsible for the resurgence not just of Persia but of Iranian-speaking peoples as a unified nation ("ethnous" as it appears in the Greek version of his successor's inscription on the Ka'ba-ye Zardosht), the strengthening of Zoroastrianism, and the establishment of a dynasty that would endure for four centuries. Long before Ayatollah Khomeini introducing Islamic Republic in 1979 or Shah Ismail (ruled 1501-1524) founding the Shi’ite Safavid Dynasty in 1501, there was Ardeshir Babakan, the head of Sassanid Dynasty, who established Zoroastrianism as the state religion and gave much power to the religious caste in 224 in Iran. This might induce one to assume that Papak held a different position or faith in religion than his son and grandson. However, one can discern that the Persians must have suffered considerable losses as well, as no attempt was made to pursue the fleeing Romans. Around 216 Ardeshir became ruler of Papak's kingdom, which was confined to central Fars. At the same time, his cavalry ranged far enough past the Roman border to threaten Syria and Cappadocia. Ardashir allied himself with Zorastrianism. Ardashir I campaigned unsuccessfully against Roman border outposts again the following year (231). Two treatises, The Testament of Ardashir and The Letter of Tosar, are attributed to them. Ardashir I campaigned unsuccessfully against Roman border outposts again the following year (231). Alliance with the Khwarazmians. Two treatises, The Testament of Ardashir and The Letter of Tosar, are attributed to them. Ardashir I or Ardeshir I (ArdaxÅ¡Ä«r; New Persian: اردشیر بابکان, Ardashir-e Bābakān), also known as Ardashir the Unifier (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire. It is not strange that Ardashir's religious lineage is emphasized in religious Sasanian statements and his noble lineage is emphasized in royal reports and then they are linked to religious statements about him. * Oranskij, I. M. 1977: "Les Langues Iraniennes". In 241, Ardashir I and Shapur finally overcame the stubborn fortress of Hatra. The successful assaults on Nisibis and Carrhae and the shock this caused in Rome led the emperor to revive the Roman client-state of Osroene. transplanted many Armenian Jews, originally   captured in… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism, Ardashir — Ardachîr Ier Ardachîr Ier ou Ardashir (ou Ardéchir, Ardachêr, Ardachès, Artahshatr en vieux perse, Artaxerxès ou Artaxerce en grec ou en latin) fut le fondateur de la dynastie perse des Sassanides qui domina le Moyen Orient à l est de l Euphrate… …   Wikipédia en Français, Ardashīr I — ▪ Sāsānian king flourished 3rd century    the founder of the Sāsānian (Sāsānian dynasty) empire in ancient Persia (reigned AD 224–241). In this battle the Parthian army was completely defeated and Artabanus was killed. The dynasty Ardashir founded would rule for four centuries until overthrown by the Rashidun Caliphate in 651. Article by Core Spirit. As patron of the church, ArdashÄ«r appears in … The founder of the Sasanian dynasty, Ardashir I (226-242 CE), had this relief carved at Naqsh-e Rustam in Iran, where earlier Persian dynasties had commemorated their kingship and exploits. A great battle in 232 cost both armies heavy losses. CNG Auction 407, lot 247 (2017). In an attempt to protect royal authority from regional challenges, the personal domains of the Sassanids and branch families family were scattered across the empire. In 241, Ardashir I and Shapur finally overcame the stubborn fortress of Hatra. References * Christensen, A. The relief shows Ardashir mounted on his horse on the left, with his hair tied up and covered by a silken wrap to form a ball, symbol of Iranian monarchs. Over the next few years, Ardashir I further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Gorgan, Khorasan, Margiana (in modern Turkmenistan), Balkh, and Chorasmia. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. Fired by this enthusiasm Ardashir led the double movement for the restoration of the ancient Faith of Zoroaster and for the establishment of the pure Aryan form of government in the land. However, it is well known that under the reign of his predecessor, Shapur II of Persia (309 ndash;379), Ardashir II had served as… …   Wikipedia, Ardashīr II — ▪ Sāsānian king flourished 4th century       king of the Sāsānian empire in ancient Persia (reigned AD 379–383). After defeating the last Parthian shahanshah Artabanus V on the Hormozdgan plain in 224, he overthrew the Parthian dynasty and established the Sasanian dynasty. Ardeshir pretended to flee, turned around in the saddle and shot Artabanus through the heart. Hearing of the Roman plans to march on his capital at Ctesiphon, Ardashir left only a token screening force in the north and met the enemy force that was advancing to the south, apparently defeating it in a decisive manner. In contrast, Ardashir I established a strong central government by which to rule his dominions. At the same time, his cavalry ranged far enough past the Roman border to threaten Syria and Cappadocia. Zoroastrianism had existed in the Parthian Empire, and—according to tradition—its sacred literature had been collated during that era. In an attempt to protect royal authority from regional challenges, the personal domains of the Sassanids and branch families family were scattered across the empire. As a result, the Roman emperor Alexander Severus (222–235) moved to the east, establishing his headquarters at Antioch, but experienced difficulties in bringing his troops together and thus made another attempt at diplomacy, which Ardashir I rebuffed.Finally, in 232, Severus led his legions in a three-pronged assault on the Persians. Given Armenia's traditional position as an ally of the Romans, Ardashir I may have seen his primary opponent not in the Armenian and Caucasian troops he had faced, but in Rome and her legions.In 230 Ardashir I led his army into the Roman province of Mesopotamia, unsuccessfully besieging the fortress town of Nisibis. Upon Pāpağ's death, Ardashir's elder brother Šāpūr ascended to the throne. He is believed by some to be the son and by others to be the brother of Shapur II. In contrast, Ardashir I established a strong central government by which to rule his dominions. Around the year 200, Ardashir became ruler of this fortress, and he soon brought under his power all of Fars, Kerman, and Gayy (modern Isfahan). According to historian Arthur Christensen, the Sassanid state as established by Ardashir I was characterized by two general trends which differentiated it from its Parthian predecessor: a strong political centralization and organized state sponsorship of Zoroastrianism. Despite these impressive structures, he established his government at the old Arsacid capital of Ctesiphon on the Tigris River. In 241, Ardashir I and Shapur finally overcame the stubborn fortress of Hatra. These cantons were designed to resist the influence of hereditary interests and feudal rivalries. World Religions Mythology Mesopotamian Mythology Esoteric & Occult Gnosticism. Cook, S.A. et al, eds. Paris: Librairie C. Klincksieck, pp 71–76. While the old feudal princes ("vāspuhragan") remained, they were required to render military service with their local troops (for the most part peasant levies). as the state religion and gave much power to the priestly caste. Local governors who descended from the ruling family bore the title of "shāh". The lesser nobility was cultivated as a source of military strength, forming the elite cavalry of the army, and the royal household found a useful (and presumably reliable) military force through the hiring of mercenaries.Zoroastrianism had existed in the Parthian Empire, and—according to tradition—its sacred literature had been collated during that era. Ardashir I campaigned unsuccessfully against Roman border outposts again the following year (231). Paris: Librairie C. Klincksieck, pp 71–76. According to one account, Ardeshir and Artabanus fought in close combat on horseback. 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